При написании писем (informal letters, semi — formal letters and formal letters) очень важны слова-связки (linking words). За них ставятся дополнительные 2 (два!!!) балла из 14. Цитирую: Критерий В1 — логика изложения и связность текста (наличие соединительных элементов в тексте). В этой рубрике и будем говорить о соединительных элементах.
Три соединительных слова сразу:
Firstly – во-первых
Secondly – во-вторых
Last but not least – и последнее, не менее важное.
В этих предложениях “last but not least” можно заменить на “thirdly” – в-третьих, но первое выражение звучит горааздо интереснее!
The aim of this activity is firstly to have fun, secondly to keep fit, and last but not least to be healthy.
There are three very good reasons why we can’t do it. Firstly, we don’t have enough money, secondly, we don’t have enough time, and last but not least, we don’t have enough experience.
There are three factors to take into account: firstly cost, secondly time, and last but not least staff.
Firstly, this car looks awful, secondly, it’s unreliable and last but not least, it’s expensive.
Moreover (used to add information) — кроме того, более того, сверх того
It is a cheap and, moreover, effective way of dealing with the problem.
It was a good car and, moreover, the price was quite reasonable.
He enjoys selling and, moreover, is good at it.
The whole report is badly written. Moreover, it’s inaccurate.
The cellar was dark. Moreover, mice nested there.
Swimming alone is against the rules and, moreover, it’s dangerous.
Apples are delicious and, moreover, great for your health.
Moreover, you must tell me the truth.
Moreover, it’s important to dedicate some time to any sort of physical activity.
However тем не менее, однако; используется, когда вы добавляете факт или информацию, которая кажется удивительной или сильно отличается от того, что вы только что сказали.
However, there were many challenges.
On the river, however, the adventurers seemed to be perfectly safe.
However, none of us uncrossed our fingers.
A bright idea, however, shot into my mind, and the problem was solved.
However, Martha took notes and Betsy recorded what was said.
The engineers said the bridge was now safe, however, no one wanted to risk crossing it.
Prince Andrew, however, did not answer that voice and went on dreaming of his triumphs.
However, he had to give him an answer.
However, the woman and her husband continued a summer-long trip westward.
However, we must get to work.
However, I will let you know.
In addition (to) в дополнение (к)
In addition to teaching, she works as a nurse in the holidays.
A new security system was installed. In addition, extra guards were hired.
In addition to his movie work, Redford is known as a champion of environmental causes.
In addition to these arrangements, extra ambulances will be on duty until midnight.
The job requires a college degree and, in addition, at least two years of experience.
In addition to soup, several salads were served.
In addition to the animals we have purchased, there is native wildlife there.
In addition to facts, the web has become the face of almost all organizations of the planet.
In addition to the native deer, the elk or buffalo could have eaten the grain.
In addition to that, many Americans own stock in other countries through their retirement savings.
In addition, Albany has the finest harbour in West Australia.
In addition to steak, the restaurant also serves, seafood, pizza and pasta.
In addition to his salary, he earns a lot from royalties.
But, in addition to being angry, I’m also hopeful. In addition to commemorating the birth of the United States’ first President, it’s a great day for shoppers.
In addition to the comfortable and modern apartments the building has an underground parking and office premises on the ground floor.
In addition to his professional experience, he has lectured and published several papers, articles and books on accounting issues.
In addition, the completion of the foreign course of university studies will be a great detail to add to my CV when applying to a job.
The city has the largest population in the country and in addition is a major shipping port.
Hopefully надо надеяться …, я надеюсь … Предложения для отработки.
Hopefully, I’ll be back home by ten o‘clock.
Hopefully, we can find a way of solving this problem.
Hopefully, we’ll get more news next week.
Hopefully, we’ll arrive before dark.
Hopefully, future research will be able to provide more evidence.
Hopefully, the results addressed in this study will contribute to further development of transport ships in near future.
Hopefully, the kinetic model proposed in this work can be used to optimize this process.
Hopefully, things will get better soon.
Hopefully, she could get her job at the diner.
Hopefully, they’ll use me as a full-time therapist later.
Hopefully, this was his one and only session with drinking too much.
Hopefully, listeners will enjoy hearing about this topic.
I’ve never been to a foreign country and I’m a bit nervous. Hopefully, students and professors will give me a warm welcome and help me to adjust to a new learning environment.
Nevertheless — тем не менее. Предложения для отработки.
Their team hadn’t lost a game the entire season. Nevertheless, we beat them last night.
What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.
It’s a difficult race. Nevertheless, about 1,000 runners participate every year.
Alexander II was an obscure but nevertheless interesting Scottish king.
There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless, it is important that we try.
I had lost a lot of money in the poker game; nevertheless I decided to continue playing.
The work was really difficult. Nevertheless, it had been done.
She was very tired, nevertheless, she kept working.
Sometimes I am sad because I am finishing school but nevertheless I am very happy.
There is a fireplace in it, but nevertheless, it’s a little cold in winter.
I’m very busy, but nevertheless, I find a spare minute to have a rest and do what I want and like.
I can imagine what it is going to be like to study at university in London. Nevertheless, I’ve never been to a foreign country and I’m a bit nervous.
Besides кроме того, более того (как слово-связка, используется, чтобы назвать еще одну, другую, более важную причину. Мы обычно ставим запятую до и после besides на письме:
I don’t think going for a walk is a good idea. It’s quite cold, and, besides, it’s getting late and we don’t want to be out in the dark.
I don’t want to go shopping. Besides, I haven’t got any money.
It’s too late to invite any more people. Besides, you know how Tim hates parties.
А вот самые простые предложения для отработки besides:
1. I don`t like Foreign Literature because our lessons are boring, besides I don`t like reading
2. I love my sister because she is funny, besides, she loves me.
3. I like our French lessons because they are interesting, besides, our teacher is the best.
4. I don`t want to go shopping because it`s far away, besides, it`s getting dark.
5. I will not eat the sandwich. It`s too early, besides, I am not hungry.
6. I don`t want to play outdoors. It`s cold, besides, it`s raining now.
7. Yesterday I fell off the bike and hit my leg. Besides, I had a terrible headache. So I didn`t go to the football training.
8. I love big dogs but I can`t keep them because I live in a small flat, besides, I am allergic to fur.
9. There were several trips during my summer holidays, besides, I had new acquaintances. So my summer was exciting.
10. People like to go to Bukovel in winter, besides, this place is fantastic in summer. So Bukovel is a very popular resort.
11. I spent my summer in the English camp. Besides, I communicated with native speakers. So I improved my knowledge of English.
12. I don`t want to go to the park because I`m tired, besides, I have to do my homework.
13. On my summer trip I swam in the sea a lot, besides, we had a swimming pool in our hotel. So we swam all the time.
14. Every day I type messages to my friends read e-books and search the Internet, besides, I play different computer games. So I use my computer a lot.
15. My mother cooked vegetable and meat dishes, besides, she baked a cake. So we had a delicious supper.
16. I can ride a mountain bike well, besides, I love nature. So I can combine the pleasure with physical exercises.
17. We went on the bus excursion, besides, we had many fun activities outdoors. So it was a fascinating time.
18. I love English. I watch films in the original, besides, I do a lot of grammar exercises online. So I improve my knowledge of English.
19. I did all the homework, besides, I tidied up my room. So I could play computer games.
20. I planted all the flowers, besides, I helped my grandmother with a garden. So I could relax on a swing.
21. No, I can`t go to the cinema because it`s too late. Besides, I need to do my homework.
22. I like dogs because they are intelligent, besides, they are kind.
Honestly (honestly speaking) — честно говоря. После этого слова ставится запятая. Предложения для отработки:
Honestly, I wish I had time to do more reading.
Honestly, it makes no difference to me where we have the wedding.
Honestly, they didn’t hear that from me.
Honestly, I can’t believe I live here.
Honestly, I’m not really sure.
Honestly, I’m not happy.
Honestly, I’m trying to think positively and convince myself that the advantages of the exchange programme will be enormous.
Honestly, I’m just exhausted, I want all of this to end.
Honestly, I think I’ve given up with this site.
Honestly, I feel safer here.
Honestly, I didn’t believe a word she said.
Honestly, I don’t know whether I can or not.
Honestly, I can’t tell you whether he likes you or not.
Honestly, it really doesn’t matter what activity you’re doing.
Undoubtedly — несомненно; используется, чтобы подчеркнуть, что что-то является правдой
В начале предложений после этого наречия может ставиться запятая, но может и не ставиться (в зависимости от того, предусматривается ли в этом месте короткая пауза или нет). Все зависит от говорящего. Советую запятую ставить.
Undoubtedly, she was the best candidate.
Undoubtedly, stress has contributed to her health problems.
Undoubtedly, some will disagree.
Undoubtedly, this is the best chocolate cake I’ve ever tasted.
Undoubtedly, public interest in folk music has declined.
Undoubtedly, there is a great deal of truth in what he says.
Undoubtedly, she was one of the best athletes in the school.
Undoubtedly, the madness of the hero of this play of Ford’s occasionally recalls Hamlet.
Undoubtedly the question is of great importance.
Undoubtedly, going to a foreign university for a whole year will provide me with the valuable experience of improving my English and knowledge of the British culture.